One in two people, with over 100 dysplastic nevi (olives), threatens to increase in the life of some.
Any change in shape, color, and shape of a mole should lead us directly to the dermatologist as early diagnosis of melanoma do curable, according to Professor Emeritus of Dermatology-Phrenology Mr. Sophia GEORGALI Athens University.
This is because according to scientific statistics melanoma is 5% of newly diagnosed tumors and the most common cause of death from skin cancer.
Melanoma is found predominantly in skin but can occur on mucous membranes, the meninges, and the eyes.
The last 15 years keeps increasing incidence mainly in Australia, where marked 50-60 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. In Greece, we have 4-5 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively.
-The White race
-All Ages (rare in children) with a mean age at diagnosis of 55 years
-the Men in the back
-The Women in legs
The mortality from melanoma in recent years is slower, due to information of citizens, the change in exposure to sunlight habits, as well as to the early diagnosis.
According to scientific studies the key factors contributing to the development of melanoma are.
– Exposure to UV radiation
– Phenotypic characteristics
– At Fitzpatrick phototypes I and II
– A large number of melanocytic or dysplastic nevi existence
– Existence of large congenital nevi
– Earlier melanoma History
– Family history of melanoma
– Hereditary mutation in genes CDK4 and CDKN2A
– Dry skin pigmentation
Only 30-40% of melanomas occur in soil preexisting nevus.
Clinical forms of melanoma
The forms in which it appears:
– Surface expanding. It is 60-70% of melanomas. Causes flat or slightly infiltrated lesion. usually grows in soil preexisting nevus. Frequent in the fourth and fifth decade of life.
– Follicular. It is 15-30% of melanomas. It nodule with rapid growth. usually develops de novo. Average age at diagnosis the sixth decade of life. 5% amelanotic melanoma (red or colorless nodule).
– Malignant Lentils. Malignant melanoma on lentil. It constitutes 5-10% of melanomas. It has slow growth. Localized chronic fotoektetheimenes areas. It occurs mainly in the 7th and 8th decade.
– Melanoma limb. It constitutes 2-8% of melanomas. It progresses slowly. Not associated with exposure to sunlight. Average age at diagnosis of 65 years. Late diagnosis due to localization in less conspicuous places.
– Melanoma mucosa. Quite rare. Appears in head and neck mucosa, rectum, female genital and urinary tract. Late diagnosis due to localization in non-visible places.
– Rarer types: amelanotic and desmoplastic.
Melanoma if not diagnosed quickly opens metastases, according to Ms. GEORGALI.
-To 15-26% of stage II melanoma metastases gives local or remote. 2/3 of metastases to regional wall nodes.
-We also 1-6% metastatic melanoma of unknown primary tumor.
The primary treatment for melanoma is surgical removal combined -when this apatite Tai- with supplementary immunotherapy INF-a, or chemotherapy, and targeted therapies with monoclonal antibodies.