Patients with COPD are particularly susceptible to respiratory infections and therefore the annual vaccination with influenza
Vaccine and every five years with the pnefmoniokkou vaccine is absolutely necessary.
COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a disease where the airways of the lungs progressively narrowing, usually through smoking. As lungs “injured” with time becomes increasingly difficult to breath through the narrowed airways. When the fault become significant, blood oxygenation becomes difficult, and the removal of carbon dioxide. These changes cause dyspnea, which unfortunately gradually worsens.
The term COPD is often used together with the conditions of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, because chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the most common forms of COPD. Also for the treatment of COPD, bronchitis and emphysema are identical, so the COPD condition and referring to individual entities.
How COPD is created
To understand how COPD is created let’s see how they work the lungs. Normally the air we breathe passes through the nose and mouth through ducts in small sacs of the lungs called alveoli. To the wells oxygen in the air passes through the thin wall into the bloodstream.
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are due to chronic inflammation of the airways and alveoli scars develop in the wall of the cells with the result that it becomes the normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Each agent that blocks the process of normal gas exchange can cause COPD. Thus, chronic bronchitis, i.e. chronic productive cough causing scarring in the airways may cause COPD.
In emphysema, alveoli damage the same. Asthma is a reversible airway inflammation if they persist, thereby cease to be reversible, it also causes COPD. Smoking greatly increases the risk for COPD, although 20% of patients are non-smokers. Exposure to gases or smoke in the workplace constitutes a risk factor as well as genetic factors, lack of a1-antitrypsin, a protein that protects the lungs.
symptoms of COPD
COPD symptoms usually very gentle in the early stages of the disease. But as the situation deteriorates cough and sputum production becomes more intense. Shortness of breath, wheezing and payment also daytime headaches are frequent.
Diagnosis is by spirometry, which detects COPD in asymptomatic patients. On examination, the patient takes a deep breath and exhales violently and quickly into a tube connected to the spirometer. It records how fast and how much volume of air the patient can blow. If the reading is abnormal, the patient is given one inhaled bronchodilator spirometry repeated. In patients with asthma measured normal and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary measurement improves partially. After confirming the diagnosis of COPD, spirometry is used periodically for disease control.
In some cases become respiratory and additional test for oxygen, carbon dioxide, the volume of the lungs. The oximetry done with an instrument like a clamp grips the finger measures the oxygen in the blood. Blood gases obtained from the artery of the wrist by syringe and determine the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood. Measurement of lung volume, is made in a box-like old payphone confirms the increase in lung volume to a significant degree of COPD can measure the gas exchange in the alveoli typically decreases in emphysema.
treatment of COPD
The treatment of COPD in smokers primarily relates to smoking cessation. Dozens of studies have demonstrated that the interruption slows disease progression regardless of the number of cigarettes, and the years that the patient smokes. There are several medications for the symptoms and complications of COPD, but no it does not cure the disease.
Most patients use inhalers that help to ease the inflammation in the airways, some require additional pills or oxygen therapy. There are exercises that strengthen the lungs, breathing gymnastics, improving the quality of breathing, while very rare and in very few cases performed surgeries reduction of lung volume.
Patients with and therefore the annual vaccination with influenza vaccine and every five years with the pnefmoniokkou vaccine is absolutely necessary.