Blood replacement or a derivative thereof. Effective and safe blood transfusion requires a detailed understanding of the condition being treated.
Most patients require blood products instead of whole blood.
During the transfusion will the following measures be taken:
Testing of donors for infectious diseases.
Blood Testing for pathogens.
Ensuring that cross blood derivatives will be administered in appropriate patients.
Immediate intervention in case of allergic reactions.
Avoiding unnecessary transfusions.
Avoid granting excessive amount of blood during transfusion.
Administration of a unit of blood only appropriate for young or elderly surgical patients, in people with coronary heart disease and in patients with acute blood loss of many units, but whose pressure, pulse and oxygen stabilized by administering a single unit.
The risk of HIV, HBV or HCV in blood collected and distributed in the United States is very low. The risk in Australia / New Zealand and Canada approximates that of the United States. Besides the aforementioned geographical areas, administration of blood may be so much suspect, that US embassies have their own stocks or follow a specific procedure, if safe blood sampling necessity.
PATIENT CARE: The patient is identified by the special hospital wristband and label the blood bank. Two health professionals (one nurse is steering) control the blood group and the Rhesus patient, its compatibility with the dosing unit of blood or administered packed red blood cells, and the expiration date.
The outdated blood is not used. Returned to the blood bank. Blood or derivatives obtained from freezing the blood bank immediately prior to administration, because they should not be stored in other unauthorized freezers. They can not be returned to the blood bank, if the temperature exceeds the 10th C, which will occur within 30 minutes of thawing. Nurses should check the lifetime of irradiated blood, which is 28 days, because the radiation destroys the cells and reduces their viability.
The shelf life of platelets and granulocytes unaffected because they are destroyed by radiation.
Before beginning the transfusion, monitored and recorded the patient’s vital signs (including temperature). Blood was reviewed for the presence of gels or color change and then poured through a suitable intravenous line, comprising a filter, which is usually transferred to a saline solution over a Y-type blood transfusion sets.
In the blood will not They must be injected intravenous solutions or other substances (except being given a special mandate), incompatibility growth potential.
The first 15 minutes, the blood flow rate is limited to 50 ml, except in the case of existence of large wounds, which require rapid transfusion. A nurse stays with the patient during transfusion and advises him to report any adverse reactions, including back pain or chest pain, hypotension, fever, warming up from the 1st C, chills, pain in the transfusion site, tachycardia, tachypnea, wheezing , cyanosis, urticaria or erythema. If occurrence of any of the above, transfusion stopped immediately, the vein open with saline and the patient’s physician and the blood bank is updated. If no incompatibility is suspected, blood and set returned to the blood bank, blood samples are taken and the patient’s urine for examination and the patient’s data is copied from the blood unit.
If the first 15 minutes did not show any symptoms and remain stable vital signs, increase the rate of transfer, to be completed within the prescribed time or (if necessary) the transfusion is performed so fast as allowed by the overall condition of the patient. Once the start transfusion, the blood is administered maximum within 4 hours to maintain the biological efficacy and reduce bacterial growth. (If the patient’s condition does not allow the execution of transfusion within the scheduled time, arrangements are made so that the blood bank to distribute the blood unit and to keep the second part).
Then, checked vital signs and the patient’s reactions every 30 minutes, monitored the established preventive measures and controlled by nurses the information overload of the patient (distended neck veins, throbbing pulse, hypertension, dyspnoea).heated device used. It should also be used as a heating pad, whenever multiple transfusions place the patient at risk of hypothermia, which can cause arrhythmia and cardiac arrest.