Table of Content
Respiratory problems prematurity
Premature infants because they are not yet ready to cope with conditions outside the womb of their mother, have many problems gi` this and need special care. Fetuses less than 24 weeks gestation are classified as non-viable. Namely not afford this life gi` and make no effort to hold on to life. But preterm infants with a gestational age of 24 weeks are likely to live gi` this and need special care to address the multiple problems of prematurity. These children weighing more than 600 grams. The more premature the newborn is the more problems show. Today all countries of the world there are special intensive care units that treat a premature and faced quite effectively the problems of prematurity. Because then the rapid advances in the treatment of premature babies, 90% of newborns with birth weight greater than 800 grams will live. Of course the fact that it kept alive very premature newborns leads inevitably to the creation of children growing up will have problems such as cerebral palsy, hearing impairment, visual etc.
Idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome.
It is the most common problem of prematurity and occurs immediately after birth. Because the lungs are not mature, they can not produce a substance called sourfaktan. This substance helps to keep open the lung alveoli. To that can be deployed lungs when the baby inhales. So when it is absent, the infant shows difficulty breathing. Today there are many ways to address this problem.
A). If the caregiver is aware that a pregnant woman may give birth prematurely, then grants pregnant cortisone that causes the production of a substance called sourfaktan.
B). There currently sourfaktan artificial and can be given to the infant.
C). Granted neonatal oxygen and if necessary can be put on artificial breathing support machine. Administration of sourfaktan has greatly reduced the time needed to keep the pups in breathing support machine.
Apnea is stopping for a few seconds of neonatal breathing. At that time the heart beats can be reduced and the skin color is pale or bruising. The apnea is due to the immaturity of the center in the brain, whose job is to control the breath. Over time reduce the frequency of apnea, which are slowly stop. In intensive care units newborns monitored with special equipment that records the apneas. The treatment of sleep apnea can be done by a simple prick of the newborn. But if done regularly, it may be decided to grant specific drugs such as theophylline.
The bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the effect of chronic treatment of neonates with oxygen and the breathing assistance apparatus.
The bronchopulmonary dysplasia infants have dependency on oxygen and susceptibility to lung infections.
Jaundice is very common in full-term newborns. In preterm are more frequent and treated exactly as in term.
Anemia means low hemoglobin blood. Anemia in premature due to the following factors:
1. The production of red blood cells in the first days of life of prematurity is slow.
2. Red blood cells of newborns live fewer days than those of adults.
3. Frequent blood tests that need to be made for the exam, and lead them to anemia. Very often, when the hemoglobin drops below the threshold needed to make blood transfusion in premature to treat the anemia.
Very serious risk for premature are infections. The defensive system of newborns is too weak and can not be easily and effectively fight infections. Gi` this and these babies need special protection within incubators accommodated in special areas of intensive care units. Also the nursing and medical staff that treats premature, necessarily before touching thoroughly wash their hands. Also no visits allowed, except of course the child’s parents. If the baby suffered any infection, administered by doctors the appropriate antibiotics.
Open votaleios resource
Blood people goes from the heart to the lungs where it is oxygenated, returns back to the heart and is then transferred to oxygenated various organs. Fetuses but the lungs are not working and the oxygenated blood from the placenta ( “partner”) of the mother. The role therefore of votaleiou resource is to bypass the lungs and go directly to the blood in the aorta, which is the main blood vessel that leads blood to the various organs. In newborns this vessel closes shortly after birth. In early but may remain open. The result is a lot of blood driven into the lungs. This may cause difficulty in breathing or heart failure. This source can be closed by administration of a specific drug called Indomethacin. If not closed with medications will need surgery.
Retinopathy of prematurity
This disease is the result of abnormal growth of blood vessels within the eye. It is not entirely clear what the cause of this condition. Formerly believed to be the result of oxygen administration in preterm. Depending on the severity of the condition, visual impairment may occur, which need to be corrected with glasses, and even complete blindness. Because this disease is quite common in premature, it is recommended to Ophthalmologic monitoring at all prematurely.
Early may have cerebral hemorrhage, which depending on the severity, it will create or not chronic problems in premature.
The spastic paraplegia is a common problem that can cause cerebral hemorrhage. It can be created hydrocephalus. As you understand the problems of prematurity is too many. this Gi` in both their first years of life is useful to be monitored by a doctor who is well informed on these issues. Besides the usual monitoring they need full-term infants, these infants should be tested for hearing and visually impaired. Special attention needs the development of the nervous system. the evolution of speech must also be monitored. Very often these children need help speech therapist, physiotherapist and occupational therapist. Also, the child family with premature infant needs special support to deal with the multiple problems.